English 9

English 9

Important Websites:

To review "Elements of Sentence Construction" go to:


To review "Dependent Clauses: Adverbial, Adjectival, Nominal [Noun]" go to:


To review "Kinds of Sentences and their Punctuation" go to:

http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentences.htmImportant Websites:

For writing good sentences, go to the following website, and printout a copy of the 6 page "Writing Effective Sentences": http://www.cateringcomplete.com/laura/english/writing_effective_sentences.htm  


 CSU, Sacramento MLA Page Format Click the Left arrow to return to MLA menu, Home to return to the Main menu or the Right arrow to go to the Parenthetical Reference page


First page

Following pages

Works-Cited page


When revising your essay, make sure your paper follows MLA style format. This page contains some general guidelines for the physical arrangement of your pages.

For answers to specific questions, either follow the links on the preceding page, refer to the MLA Handbook, 4th ed., or check with your instructor.

MLA Format



The opening page to your essay should use the format shown below:



MLA Format top

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Only the first page should include the whole heading and title. All margins--top, bottom, and sides--should be set to one inch (1") throughout the whole paper. Don't add extra spaces between the heading and the title, nor should there be extra spaces between the title and the body of the paragraph.

Use a reasonably-sized font: either 10 characters per inch or a 12 point font. And choose a font that is easy to read rather one that is decorative: "Arial," "Lucida," "Modern," "Palermo" or "Times New Roman" are some good choices. Scripted fonts are hard to read even if they do make your paper "look nice"; it is the content of the paper that is most important, and making it easy for your readers to understand that content is always a good choice.

MLA Format



Pages that follow the opening page to your essay should use the format shown below:



MLA Format top

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Instead of the full heading, pages that follow the opening page should use a header in the upper right corner: your last name and the page number.

Do not add extra spaces between paragraphs--that is a business format. Instead, make sure to continue indenting paragraphs one-half inch (the usual tab default setting).

Make sure that you properly document your source with parenthetical references so there can be no questions about plagiarism. Guidelines for parenthetical referencing can be found on at this linked page.

MLA Format



Finally, if you have referenced outside sources, you must include a works-cited page to show your readers where you found your information; use the format shown below:


MLA Format top

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The works-cited page at the end of your essay gives your readers the list of sources you actually referenced within your paper, allowing your readers to easily find those sources themselves. The works-cited page is NOT a bibliography, listing all of the texts you may have researched in preparing the paper.

Note that this page should have a header as well. And again, the page should be double spaced, including the citations.

The citation entries should be listed in alphabetical order by the authors' last names. If there are multiple authors, the proper format is as follows:

Enos, Richard Leo, and John M. Ackerman.
If there are two or three authors, give their names in the same order as on the title page; it is only necessary to reverse the names of the first author, but make sure a comma separates each author and place a period after the last author's name.

Or, if there are more than three authors:

Belenky, Mary Field, et al.
If there are more than three authors, you have a choice of format. You can choose to follow the format for multiple authors given above (which could result in a great deal of typing), or you can add "et al," meaning "and others" after the initial author's name. Just make sure to include the comma between the author's name and "et al" and to place a period after.

Clarity should always be your guide; help your readers whenever possible.

Vocabulary Test on Unit 13 will be Thursday, May 12, 2016. Some of the words from the list below will appear on the test.  The unit will also be gone over in class previous to the test.

Vocabulary  Unit 13;

.ad infinitum- endlessly, unceasingly

.apportion- divide; distribute; give out in shares

.bona fide- genuine; authentic; legitimate

.buoyant- cheerful; animated; lighthearted

.clique- small, exclusive group; inner circle

.concede- yield; submit; admit as true

.congenial- agreeable; sociable; pleasant

.lofty- very high; noble; exalted

.migration- population shift; mass movement

.perceive- observe; notice; understand

.perverse- stubborn; obstinate; contrary

.prelude- introduction; preface; prologue

.rancid- stale; foul; rotten; putrid

.rustic- country-like; simple; unsophisticated

.sever- cut off; dissolve

.sordid- rundown; filthy; poor

.untenable- incapable of being defended; unsupportable

.versatile- adaptable; all-around; many sided

.vindicate- clear from a charge; acquit; absolve

.wane-lose size, strength, power; diminish

To Kill a Mockingbird  by  Harper Lee  Chapters 22-31   MAY 13, 2016

Directions:  From the pdf version of To Kill a Mockingbird downloaded to your Ipad,  you are going to read Chapters 22-31 (pages116- 215).  As you are reading the chapters you are going to answer the following questions. You will format your paper in the usual MLA style.  The purposes of answering the questions is to guide you through the novel chapter by chapter, help you to focus on what you are reading, and provide you with information that can be used on tests or essays. Your response to each question must be thoughtful, in complete sentences, and thorough enough to satisfactorily answer the question. If a question has more than one part, incorporate them into one answer, using more than one paragraph if necessary.  Superficial and inconclusive responses are not wanted. A printed out copy must be handed in on the day due.  No lateness is acceptable; you are responsible for all your assignments.


Questions to Answer While Reading To Kill a Mockingbird Chapters 22-31:

Chapter 22: 

1. Although Atticus did not want his children in court,he defends Jem’s right to know what has happened.  Explain, in your own words, Atticus’s reasons for this.  ( Look at the speech beginning, ‘This is their home,sister’.)
2. Miss Maudie tells Jem that ‘things are never as bad as they seem’.  What reasons does she give for this view?
3. Why does Dill say that he will be a clown when he grows up?  Do you think he would keep this ambition for long? 
4. Why does Bob Ewell feel so angry with Atticus?

Chapter 23:
1. What do you think of Atticus’s reaction to Bob Ewell’s challenge?  Should he have ignored Bob, retaliated, or done something else?
2. What is ‘circumstantial evidence’?  What has it got to do with Tom’s conviction?
3. What does Atticus tell Scout about why the jury took so long to convict Tom?
4. Why does Aunt Alexandra accept that the Cunninghams may be good but are not ‘our kind of folks’?
5. At the end of the chapter, Jem forms a new theory about why Boo Radley has never left his house in years. What is this?

Chapter 24:
1. Do you think the missionary ladies are sincere in worrying about the ‘Mrunas’ (a tribe in Africa)?  Give reasons for  your answer.
2. Compare the reactions of Miss Maudie and the other ladies when Scout says she is wearing her ‘britches’ under her dress.  
3. What is your opinion of the Maycomb ladies as depicted in this chapter?
4. Explain briefly how Tom was killed.                                                                           5. What is Atticus’s explanation for Tom’s attempted escape?  Do you agree with Atticus?
6. How, in this chapter, do we see Aunt Alexandra in a new light? How does Miss Maudie support her?

Chapter 25: 
1. How does Maycomb react to the news of Tom’s death?
2. Comment on the idea that Tom’s death was ‘typical’?
3. Explain the contrast Scout draws between the court where Tom was tried and ‘the secret courts of men’s hearts’. In what way are hearts like courts?
4. Why did Jem not want Scout to tell Atticus about Bob Ewell's comment?

Chapter 26:
1. In her lesson on Hitler, Miss Gates that “ We (American people) don’t believe in persecuting anyone”. What seems odd to the reader about this claim.
2. Why is Scout puzzled by Miss Gates disapproval of Hitler?
3. Why does Scout’s question upset Jem?  Is there a simple answer, or any answer,  to the question, “ how can you hate Hitler an’ then turn around an’ be ugly about folks right at home?”

Chapter 27:
1. What three things does Bob Ewell do that alarm Aunt Alexandra?
2. Why, according to Atticus, does Bob Ewell bear a grudge?  Which people does Ewell see as his enemies, and why?
3. What was the purpose of the Halloween Pageant?  What practical joke had persuaded the grown ups to have an organized event?

Chapter 28:
1. Scout decides to keep her costume on while walking home.  How does this affect her understanding of what happens on the way?
2. Why had Atticus not brought a chair for the man in the corner?  Who might this stranger be.

Chapter 29: 
1. What causes the ‘shiny clean line’ on the otherwise ‘dull wire’ of Scout’s costume?
2. What explanation does Atticus give for Bob Ewell’s attack? 
3. What does Heck Tate give as the reason for the attack?
4. Do you think the sheriff’s explanation or Atticus’s is more likely to be true?

Chapter 30:
 1. Who does Articus think caused Bob Ewell’s death?
2. Why does Heck Tate insist Bob Ewell’s death was sel-inflicted?  In what way is this partly true?
3. Is Heck right to spare Boo Radley the publicity of an inquest (a judicial inquiry)?  Give reasons for your answer.
4. How does the writer handle the appearance, at the end of the story, of Boo Radley?

Chapter 31:
1. How do the events of the final chapters explain the first sentence in the whole novel?
2. How does Scout make sense of an earlier remark of Atticus’s as she stands on the Radley porch?
3. How much of a surprise is it to find out what Boo Radley is really like?  Has the story before this point prepared the reader for this discovery?
4. At the end of the novel, Atticus reads to Scout.  Comment on his choice of story. Does it have any connection with themes earlier in the novel and in its ending?