|Department: Social Studies|
|Course: History of World War II|
|Teacher: Mr. Hessel|
Prelude to War
Prelude to War
World War I lasted from 1914 to 1918. During this war, Germany, Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary fought the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States
|Russia||Monarchy (1917 Communism)|
|United States||Federal Republic|
World War I began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1908 by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist. Austria soon declared war after Serbia accepted most of the demands placed on them by an Austrian ultimatum. Soon Russia declared war against Austria in defense of Serbia. Soon Germany declared war against Russia. France declares war against Austria and Germany due to an alliance between Russia and France.
Germany's plan to deal with a two front war against France and Russia was to attack France first and then Russia. This plan was called the Schleiffen Plan. The Schlieffen Plan was launched in August 1914. It composed of a fake attack in Alsace and Lorraine, and German troops assembling in Holland and Belgium to attack Paris from the North. Due to Schlieffen's death in 1905, the plan was altered by Molke revision which weakened the "Northern Attack". When the Germans and French meet in the Marne River, France's use of the machine gun against German soliders causes both sides to build trenches, which soon become permanant.
Fighting used in WWI:
- Trench Warfare
- Tank - First Used in the Battle of Cambrai in 1916
- Poison Gas
- Air Plane
April 1917 - The United States enters World War I. Most American soliders do not reach Europe until 1918 due to time needed for mobilization and transport. John Pershing lead Ameriacn troops with Ferdinand Foch serving as liaison between the United States and Allied command.
November 1917 - Russian Revolution. The Russians leave the war after devastating losses.
November 8, 1918 - Germany sent a civilian representative, Mathias Erzberger to a French general Ferdinand Foch in Compeigne. Germany signed the Armistice in a railroad car at Compeigne, France.
- Evacuation of all territory gained by Germany and the return of Alsace and Lorraine of France
- The Rhineland to be occupied and demilitarized
- The German Navy would have to sail to Britain, and surrender to British authorities
- 150,000 Railroad cars, 5,000 Locomotives, 5,000 Trucks, Hevery Weaponry, and 1,700 Combat Aircraft had to be turned over to the French.
- Erzberger, had no choice, so he signed the Armistice.
November 11, 1918 - An armistice is signed ending WWI. The German army was not truly defeated, but the German army was exhausted due a lack of supplies and revolutions within Germany.
November 9, 1918 - Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany abdicated and the Weimar Republic is established. The Weimar Republic will be resented because German people thought of the Armistice to be unfair and harsh.
WWI killed 10 million people. After WWI Austlria-Hungary collapses, and all great Monarchies except England's died.
The Versailles Treaty
The "Big Four" and Japan were at the signing of the Treaty.
|United Kingdom||David Lloyd George|
The Treaty redrew the map of Europe and Asia.
- Austria-Hungary was divided into Austria, Hungary ,Yugoslovia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czeckoslovakia.
- Russia lost Baltic States (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia).
- Poland was created from slices of Germany and Russia.
- Italy gained territory in the Alps and Yprieste from Austria.
- Japan gained Territory in the Pacific and in China from Germany. Although they recieved territories under the treaty, the Japanese did not receive a seat, and this left the Japanese embittered.
Clemenceau wanted Germany permanatly weakened. He wanted:
- Germany army always under 100,000 soldiers
- No German air force
- No German subs
- No German colonies
- Germany had to give up City of Danzig to the League of Nations
- Germany had to demilitarize the Rhineland
- Germany had to pay heavy reparations
" The War Guilt Clause, the Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the Loss and Damage to which the Allied and the Associated Governments have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed by THEM by the aggression of Germany and her Allies"
Weimar Republic lasted from 1919 - 1931. It had seventeen different ministries, crippling inflation, French occupation of the Ruhr.
November 3, 1918 - In Kiel, 20,000 workers and sailors gathered for speeches from the Socialists and Communists. The Admirals sounded the alarm to get sailors back to their ships but the sailors didn't return to their ships. The 20,000 people marched to the prisons and freed the prisoners. One German patrol fired at these people and killed 8, and wounded 28.
November 4, 1918 - Street fighting began. A council of workers and sailors demanded power. The Red Flag if Communism was raised on Public Buildings and ships. Fighting spread to other parts of Germany (Hamburg, Hanover, Bremen). Revolutionary Marxist such as Karl Liebknecht began organizing soviets. One of their key demands was the abdication of the Kaiser. Fighting spread to Berlin. Freidrich Ebert convinces the Kaiser to resign.
November 9, 1918 - A mass demonstration marched to the Reichtag building. Philip Scheidemann (leader of the Social Democrats) announced the German Republic. Freidrich Ebert calls all the socialists together to try to form a government, and asks the military for support. General Wilhelm Groner demands a high price for military support. His price was:
- Full independence of the military
- Hindenburg would be in charge
- General Staff would control all aspects of Military
- Army would not be under Civilian control
People signed the Armistice. This brought the workers back together and restored economy, and industry. The government had to promise the people something's so they can agree to this government. The government promised:
- 8 hour work days
- Right to strike
- Right to form unions
- Government would regulate industry
January 19, 1919 - National Assembly was elected to create a new constitution. German soliders will never accept this new governement.
Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht were radical socialists (Communists). They opposed all compromises and refused to participate in the January 19, 1919 election. They attempted to take power by force.
January 6, 1919 - There was 200,000 workers in a massive demonstration in Berlin, and they seized government buildings, printing shops, railroads, and newspapers. Berlin becomes a battleground. Ebert asks Freikorps for help. The Freikorps were army veterans from WWI, lead by General Ludwig Marter. They believed they were stabbed in the back by Communists. They were led by Noske to stop the Communists in Berlin. They used flame-throwers and machine-guns to clear them out. They captured Liebknecht and Luxembourg, and they brutally murdered
April 30, 1919 - Revolting reached Munich, and a German Soviet Union was set up by the Communists. There was a lot of assassinations and street fighting. These revolts were crushed by the Freikorps.
The Result of all these revolts was:
- the majority of the socialists were in power led by Ebert.
- Weimar Republic was in dept. to the military
- working men felt betrayed by the Social-Democrats
- groups like the Freikorps turned into radical ultra-Nationalist right wing organizations.
March 12, 1920 - Kapp Putsch began. 5,000 rebellious troops took over government buildings. Ebert asks military for help, they refuse because they will not fire on their own, but they assured that they will not help them. Ebert flees Germany. Ludwig Kapp a extreme nationalist proclaimed as the leader. He didn't have any plans on how to run the govt. so 5 days later he fled and Ebert returned. Kapp Putch Revolution ends, March 17, 1920.
Ebert is back in power, and resigns again. He resigns because communists are back. 50,000 Communists seize the Ruhr Valley. These Communists were aided by Moscow. Muller takes Eberts place and he sends the army right away. This breaks the Versailles Treaty (De-Militarized zone). The German army gets rid of Communists. All prisoners even wounded were executed. The French occupied two cities in Germany because Germany violated treaty. The British tell the French to leave Ruhr Valley and they do. This is the first tension between France and Britain about Germany.
|Political Parties||In Favor Of|
|Social Democrats||Weimar Republic|
|Center Party||Weimar Republic|
|German Peoples Party||Monarchy|
|German Nationalist Party||Monarchy|
|Independent Socialist Party||Communism|
June 16, 1920 - Elections For Reichtag
|Political Parties||% Of Party After Vote||% Up or Down|
|German Peoples Party||13.9%||+9%|
|German Nationalist Party||15.0%||+5%|
|Independent Socialist Party||17.8%||+10%|
|Percentage Breakdown by Political Position|
|Other Political Parties||7.6%|
Germans were turning away from the Weimar Republic. Many turned to the right wing because they were terrified by the Communists. Industrialists gave lots of money to the German Peoples Party.
Independent Party split and merged with the Communists. This was heavily influenced by Moscow.
Time for tranquility seems to come.
French wants Germany to start paying for the reparations. French send Seydoux to speak with Germany. Seydoux told Germany to pay 3 billion gold marks yearly for 5 years. French thought Seydoux was too nice, so in 1924 they sent Aristed Briand, he told Germany they had to pay at least 6 billion gold marks every year for 42 years. In the next 42 years they would have to pay a total of 132 billion gold marks. 12% of all exports had to go to these payments. French would receive 25% of these payments, England 22% and Belgium, Netherlands, Italy would get remaining.
Germany refused to pay this, so the Allies occupy the Rhur. German cabinet resigns.
Joseph Wirt from the Center Party took power and elected Walter Rathenau as finance minister. Walter borrowed 250 million dollars from England to pay French.
Erzberger and Rathenau was assassinated by the Ehrhardt Brigade. Ebert invokes Article 48 and bans anti-republican meetings, publications, and organizations. Special courts were created to try cases involving attempts to overthrow the government. Many anti-Weimar groups removed references to their anti-Weimar statements, or went "underground". The state of Bavaria resisted this decree and tolerated right wing groups.
December, 1922 - The President of the France, Raymond PoincarÚ, wanted more reparations. France occupied the Ruhr Valley again. 5 French and 1 Belgium Divisions occupied the Ruhr Valley. Every German worker refused to cooperate with the French, so they didn't work for them. French respond by killing them. Ruhr Valley is not producing for Germany or France, so the French bring their own workforce to produce for them. Germany starts printing money with no backing. This causes tremendous inflation. German marks become worthless (25 Billion German Marks to 1 US Dollar). Prices in Germany raised ten times a day or more. A pound o butter cost 100,000 marks in the mourning and 500,000 marks in the afternoon. Workers were paid twice a day and they had time off mid-day so they can have time to buy food before prices went up again. Middle class savings was totally wiped out.
Communists gain great power during the years of inflation in Germany.
November 9, 1923 - Adolf Hitler tries to take over the German Govt. This is called the Beer Hall Putsch. However this fails. German Govt. now resigns.
August 13, 1923 - Gustav Stresseman becomes chancellor. He is faced with 3 problems:
- French Occupation of Ruhr Valley
Occupation + Reparations
Streseman gets German workers back to work in the Ruhr. These workers would make negotiations with the French. This works so French are removed from Ruhr Valley.
Streseman appoints Hjalmar Schact as finance minister. Schact creates a bank called the Rentenbank. This made all industrial equipment and real estate in Germany and mortgaged. This gave Germany currency backing . The new currency was called Rentenmark. 1 Rentenmark would be 1 trillion marks. This forced Weimar Republic to operate under a balanced budget. This settles down inflation.
Inflation in Germany
May 4, 1924 - New Elections. Communists went from 4 seats to 64 seats. Nationalists went from 70 seats to 95 seats. NSDAP (NAZI) gained 32 seats. Moderates lost seats, New Chancellor is Dr. Wilhelm Marx. Marx appoints Gustav Streseman as foreign minister.
January 1924 - Dawes Plan. Allies representatives meet in Paris. The Allies lowered the amount of reparations that Germany would have to pay. German Reparations would be collected in small amounts from the Weimar Republic and the rest would come from German taxes on transportation.
German Economy on the road to recovery and stability so the Reichmark returns.
||February 28, 1925 - Ebert dies. First presidential election ever in Germany. This re-opens the political strife in Germany. There are 14 candidates running for president and the winner needs the majority. Each faction realizes they have to group together and back a candidate.|
Center Party and Social Democrats formed Peoples Block, and their candidate was former Chancellor Wilhelm Marx.
German Peoples Party and Nationalists Party formed Reich Party, and their candidate was Paul Von Hindenburg.
Paul Von Hindenburg wins. He was 78 years old and senile
June 17, 1837 - Adolf Hitler's father, Alois Shikelgruber was born. Alois' mother married Georg Johann Heidler. Alois changed his name to Heidler then to Hitler in order to inherit some money. Alois first and second wife died and his third, Clara Polzl, gave birth to Adolf Hitler on April 20, 1889.
Adolf was a sickly child. Because of his sickness, Hitler devlopes a special relationship with his mother. In contrast, his father used strong discipline, and he brutally hit him a lot.
Adolf attended a Benedictine School, for elementary school. He was an altar boy, and thought ofbecoming a priest. Due to the failure of his father's business, the family moved to Loding. His father now drank more and the abuse rose. When he finished elementary school his father wanted Adolf to become like him, a Customs Official. Adolf wanted to be an artist.
When Adolf attended secondary school was very unhappy. He became very immature, a poor student, lazy and a prankster. Here he learned his extreme nationalism. He though of the Slavs (non-Germans) as inferior.
January 3, 1903 - Alois dies while he was drinking.
In 1905 Adolf graduated, and began to study architecture. Hitler is unable to attend High School because of his poor grades.
May 1906 - Hitler visited Vienna, where beautiful building and streets are. His beloved mother had breast cancer.
September 1907 - Adolf moved to Vienna. This was the beginning of his Vagabond Days. He applied for Academy of Fine Arts. He passed his first test but when the school saw his art work they rejected him. He continued his self-teaching. He was living off his fathers money and a orphan fund. He lived with his only friend August Kubizek. Hitler didn't drink or smoke, lived frugally, ate simply, had no sexual desire, condemned prostitution. In Vienna he began developing his political ideas. He hated the parliament because everyone was arguing. He saw the power of Demagogue.
July 1908 - Hitler visited Linz. He left his only friend August Kubizek without explanation. He tried to apply to the Academy of Fine Arts again but they called his work inferior. His money ran out, so he got a job at construction. He argued violently with the people he worked with, they argued about Marxism and Social Democrats. Hitler hated a lot of the non-Germans living in Vienna. He blamed the Jews in Vienna for everything. His intense Nationalism turned into extreme Racism. He thought all non-Germans were inferior.
December 1909 - Hitler sunk into utter poverty. He lived on the streets and benches. He went to a shelter. There he began to practice on his speech. He learned it was the key to make people sway. He found his uncanny ability to appeal to the emotions of the crowd he was speaking to. He had piercing eyes, the key to his success.
1913 - Hitler decides to move to Munich. He wanted to live in the German Empire. He may have been escaping Austrian authorities who wanted him for military service. He was arrested in Munich, and was returned to Austria, but he was declared unfit for the army so they released him.
Hitler quickly returns to Munich and studies the philosophy of Clausewitz and Nietzche. Clausewitz's beliefs that war can achieve domestic political goals and Nietzche belief in a ▄berman, or people who stand out above everybody else, appeal to Hitler.
During World War I
June 28, 1914 - Hitler joins the 1st Co. of Bauarian Reserve Infantry as list regiment. He meets Rudolf Hess here.
October 21, 1914 - Hitler left for the front. He was extremely brave, he became a messenger.
December 2, 1914 - Hitler received Iron Cross 2nd Class
October 7, 1913 - In Somme Hitler was shot in the knee
March 1917 - Hitler returned to the fighting.
August 4, 1918 - Hitler received Iron Cross 1st Class.
August 13, 1918 - Hitler was blinded by mustard gas in Ypres. In the hospital Hitler learned about the abdication of the Kaiser. He felt betrayed, and his sacrifices were in vain. He cried and cried. He decided that the Jews and Politicians had betrayed the Germans and led them to defeat.
November 21, 1918 - Hitler recovers and leaves the hospital. He rejoins his old unit in Munich. He was sent to school where they helped soldiers reenter civilian life. He joined nationalist lectures on history and politics. He then became an instructor, and again learned the power of his voice. He was sent to investigate the German Workers Party.
The German Workers Party was founded by Anton Drexlor on January 12, 1919. Hitler attended the first meeting and was given a pamphlet by Drexler. The pamphlet stated what Hitler though, " Germany was betrayed by Jewish dominated Politicians. "
Hitler joins on September 16, 1919, he becomes member 555 (55th member). He used his power as a speaker to win the support of the people. The party slowly grew in size.
February 24, 1920 - Over 2,000 people at the Hofbrauhaus. His speech was for 30 minutes. The party changes its name to NSDAP (NAZI). Hitler adopted a platform of 25 points. Some of those points were:
- Unification of all German speaking people
- Repudiation of Versailles Treaty
- Citizenship to only pure blooded Germans
- Art to reflect racial ideas of Nazism
- Stronger centralised national governement with a strong centralised government (The Fuhrer Principle)
Hitler emerges as leader of the party. By 1921 2,000 members.
February 3, 1921 - Drexler tries to keep control of the party, so Hitler resigns. Drexler begs for his return and Hitler asks for unquestioned obedience.
July 29, 1921 - Hitler was confirmed as leader by vote. Hitler bought a newspaper called Volkischer Beobachter. He sent this newspaper to members. Began to make Uberman (Superman). He adopted the Swastica, which mean fortune in Sanskrit. The Nazi flag was red for socialism and white for nationalism.
March 1922 - 6,000 members in the Nazi party.
August 16, 1922 - Hitler mesmerized a crowd of 50,000. Nazi party was banned in many parts of Germany. Hitler apostles carried on their message under different party names.
Seventh-grade students ready the Volkischer Beobachter in 1939
Jules Streicher - Elementary school teacher. He was radical anti-semite. Fired because he made his students say "Heil Hitler". Published the newpapaer Die Sturmer.
Alfred Rosenberg - Chief theorists of Nazi's. He wrote the Protocols of Zion, which describes the international Jewish conspiracy to enslave mankind, and Myth of the Twentieth Century, which describes how the source of all art is from Aryan culture.
Rudolf Hess- He met Hitler in the German army, and served in the Freikorps. Hess served as Hitler's "right-hand man".
Ernst Rohm - He was a member of the Freitkorp. He found the NAZI militia, SA or Brown Shirts. He believed in Socialism. He will be eventually killed due to his homosexuality.
Herman Goering - He was born from a noble family. He was a world famous fighter pilot. He earned the Pour le MeritÚ, the highest medal that can be recieved in Germany. He trained the Brown Shirts, and was in charge of Hitler's bodyguards. Eventually, he becomes leader of the Luftwaffe (Air Force). Goring's membership helps to give the party respect.
Heinrich Himmer - Organzes the SS, who served as personal bodyguards for Hitler, and ran concentration camps.
Joseph Goebbels - Started out as an opponent of Hitler, but Hitler won him over. He became minister of propoganda for the NAZIs. He said "the bigger the lie , the more they believe it".
November 1923 - Beer Hall Putsch.
Hitler stormed into the Burgerbraukellar where a Bavarian Gov., official was speaking. Hitler shot into the air, and yelled that the revolution has begun. The two officials were forced to sign an agreement that supported his revolution. Hitler told the crowd of the new government. He told them that they would march on Berlin. They began to march to Police headquarters. Nazi's entered a small street blocked by police There was bullets fired and there was 16 dead Nazi's and 3 dead police. Hitler was arrested November 11.
February 26, 1924 he was tried for treason, and was sentenced for 5 years. With Rudolf Hess's help we wrote Mein Kampf.
December 20, 1924 he was freed, and he rededicated himself to Nazi party.
Beer Hall Conspirators
Mein Kampf - My Struggle. This was Hitler's blueprint for the future. It became the bible for Germany. It included
- Lebensraum (living space)
- Inferiority of the Slavs
- The Jewish Conspiracy
- Need for a Strong Leader
December 20, 1924 - Hitler was freed, and he was barred from making public speeches. He fought to regain control of the party. He fought Gregor Strasser (Socialist).
February 14, 1926 - Hitler once again becomes undisputed leader.
1928 - 175,000 Nazi's, only 2.6% of the vote. 12 delegates to the Reichtag.
1929 - Stock Market Crashed (Great Depression). Six Million workers lost their jobs. 43% of the labor force was out unemployed
1930 - 107 Brownshirts
1932 - 500,000 Brownshirts
May 1931 - Bruning seeks an end to reparations. British and US agree but French say NO!
July 13, 1931 - 1st bank in Germany closes, then they ALL followed.
December 8, 1931 - Bruning invokes Article 48
- price controls
- wage controls
- raised taxes
- lower Gov. salaries
January 27, 1932 - Hitler speaks to the Industry Club in Dusseldorf. He is beginning to court the industry, they feared Communism. They sent Hitler large amounts of money.
Hindenburg term came to an end. New presidential elections.
Hindenburg was running against Hitler and Thalman (Communist). Hitler had 30.1%, Hindenburg had 49%. Hitler's campaign was called Hitler ober Deutschland (Hilter over Germany) and was the first to use an airplane to go from city to city. They need a majority to win, so they had a new runoff were Hindenburg won.
Bruning resigns and Von Papen takes over as Chancellor.
July 31, 1932 - 230 Nazi's. They must be brought into the government. Hitler refuses unless he becomes Chancellor. Government collapses.
November 6, 1932 - Nazi's lost seat because of their violence, but still had to be brought into the government. They had 196 seats.
Photo of Hindenburg
January 30, 1933 - Hitler appointed as Chancellor.
February 27, 1933 - Reischtag building burns down. Hitler blamed the Communists. They suspected Martin Van Der Lubbe so they beheaded him. Hitler now convinces Hindenburg to give him special powers.
- Civil liberties suspended
- Political meetings banned
- Only NAZI party is allowed to rally
March 23, 1933 - Hitler convinced at least 2/3rds of the Reichtag to pass the ENABLING ACT. This gave Hitler and his cabinet legislative powers. This is the beginning of NAZI tyranny.
Hitler eliminated all state govt., banned Social Democrats, Nationalists, and the Center Party. Nazi party is the only legal party.
Hitler destroyed the labor unions. He seized union leaders and sent them to concentration camps.Workers forced to join Nazi organizations. Industries were also forced to join Nazi Organizations.
Hitler worked to eliminate unemployment. He created Autobahns, a system of high-speed expressways, a public project that employed people.
Hitler appointed Hjalmar Schacht as the minister of Economics. He strengthened the currency and reduced imports. Hitler wanted Germany 100% self sufficient.
Hitler wanted control of the army. He appointed Blomberg as Minister of War. Blomberg appoints Nazis in high positions.
Hitler wanted to combine the army and the Brownshirts. The German army hated the Brown Shirts so Hitler could not combine the two. Ernst Rohm was leader of the Brownshirts. Himmler was leaderof Schutzstaffel or SS (Hitler's body guards). To solve this problem Hitler had to become leader of the Brownshirts.
June 30, 1934 - Night of the Long Lives - Ernst Rohm was on vacation in South Munich. Hitler calls Rohm and wants all important people from the Brownshirts to meet in the hotel were Rohm stayed. Hitler and the SS marched in that hotel and took them all. They gave Rohm a pistol and told him to shoot himself when he refused they beat him to death. If anyone from the Brownshirts resisted Hitler they were killed. Bodies were hacked to pieces and thrown into the swamps. There were over 200 killed.
Ernst Rohm and Himmler checking the SA
August 1, 1934 - President Hindenburg dies. Hitler combined Presidency and Chancellor into theoffice of the Fuhrer. All soldiers in army and navy had to swear loyalty to the Fuhrer. Hitler is now the supreme ruler of Germany.
March 26, 1933 - Terror against the Jews begins. Goebbels organizes a boycott of Jewish businesses.
Law for Restoration of Professional Civil Service - Eliminated all Jews and Anti-Nazis from Civil Service
Law against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning - All Jewish faculty purged, no Jewish colleges.
Law on the Revocation of Naturalization and Annulment of German Citizenship - Every Jewish person that had citizenship after WWI, lost their citizenship.
Law of Heredity Farm - No Jew can inherit land.
September 15, 1935 - Nuremberg Laws
- Anyone with 3 Jewish grandparents lost their citizenship
- Marriage as well as sex was forbidden between a Jew and Aryans.
- No German woman under 45 can be employed in a Jewish household
- Jews were barred from public places
- Jews can leave Germany only if they forfeit their land.
November 9, 1938 - Kristalnacht
German ambassador to France was assassinated by a Jew in Paris on November 7, 1938.
November 9, 1938 - the Brownshirts out of uniform destroyed Jewish businesses. Jews were beaten and dozens killed. 7,500 businesses were destroyed, 250 synagogues were burned 30,000 Jews were sent to concentration camps. The Jews were blamed for all this and were forced to pay for all the damage (1 billion marks). Now Jews were forbidden to leave home at night and they could not own gold, silver, radios, and telephones. Jews were moved to ghettos and they were used for labor.